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Damage model

Basic information

The amount of damage objects can sustain depends on their weight and material.
Impact damage is presented as the amount of energy hitting the object.
Objects may have or change their status to different status such as Corrosion, depending on the damage they receive.


  • Armor Value (AV)
    • Object's armor value indicating resistance to Projectile Energy
  • Density
    • Key material property to define how durable material is against impacting energy. Higher Density value increases Armor Value loss on impact.
  • Projectile Energy (PE)
    • The total energy value when projectile hits an object.
    • Projectile Energy values are calculated in advance for each possible weapon-projectile combination.
    • Projectile Energy formula uses weapon's velocity to fire projectiles with and projectile's mass.
      • Laser weapons that transmit energy have their own energy value that is not affected by projectile mass or velocity.
  • Armor Degrade Multiplier (ADM)
    • Multiplies Energy value before it reduces Impact Armor.
  • Armor Damage (AD)
    • The actual amount of damage to be reduced from current Armor value.
    • Damage amount is calculated from the Energy value after material reductions, multiplied with the Armor Degrade Multiplier.
  • Energy Through Armor (ETA)
    • The Energy amount exceeding object's current Armor value.
  • Breaking Damage
    • Small amount of energy weakens the object when the energy exceeds the object's Armor value.
  • Fracturing Damage
    • Large amount of energy fractures the object when exceeding the object's Armor value, breaking off pieces of the object.



General overview of the damage calculation:

  1. Projectile Energy impacting an object is calculated from projectile mass and weapon velocity. The projectile mass is most commonly the caliber of a bullet.
  2. Armor Value will decrease whenever an object takes a hit.
  3. If Projectile Energy exceeds object's Armor value, Breaking Damage will occur.
    • NOTE! Heat Status will cause a negative effect on the Armor Value.
  4. Voxel Damage amount is calculated from Projectile Energy exceeding the object's Armor value.
  5. Armor Degrade Multiplier is calculated from Density property of the object's material and from volume of the object.
  6. Armor Damage is calculated from Projectile Energy and Armor Degrade Multiplier. The Armor Damage is reduced from current Armor Value.

Damage details

Projectile energy (PE)

The formula for calculating projectile energy:

Projectile Energy = (M * V² / 2) / 10000
  • M stands for projectile mass, which is most commonly the caliber of the bullet.
  • V stands for bullet velocity.
  • For example Long rifle has muzzle velocity of 1,000 and projectile mass of 2,4 due to the caliber.
    • The formula would give Long rifle Projectile energy value of 120.

Armor degrade multiplier (ADM)

The formula for calculating Armor degrade multiplier:

MM * WM * CM
  • Armor degrade multiplier is a percentage value of the Projectile Energy that actually damages the object's Armor.
  • MM stands for Material multiplier, which is the percentage of how much the material of the object negates Projectile energy.
    • Density increases damage done to Armor Value.
  • WM stands for Weight multiplier, which balances armor degrade between different sized objects.
    • Larger objects get a bonus, and sustain impacting energy more efficiently.
  • CM stands for Corrosion multiplier, which increases the Armor degrade multiplier.
    • Corrosion status increases the armor degrade on each impact of energy.

Armor damage (AD)

The formula for calculating Armor damage is:

Armor damage  = MPE * ADM
  • MPE stands for Modified Projectile Energy.
  • ADM stands for Armor degrade multiplier.
  • The damage amount that degrades armor is calculated by multiplying incoming Modified Projectile Energy with the Armor degrade multiplier.

Armor value (AV)

The formula for calculating Armor value:

Armor value = AV - AD
  • AD stands for Armor damage.
  • AV stands for Armor value.
  • Armor damage is reduced from the current Armor value.
    • While taking damage, armor value drops from every hit until it reaches 0.

Energy through armor (ETA)

The formula for calculating Energy through armor:

Energy through armor = PE - AV
  • PE stands for Projectile energy.
  • AV stands for Armor value.
  • Armor value is subtracted from projectile energy, which equals the actual damage that the object receives through armor.

Damage depth (DD)

The formula for calculating Damage depth:

Damage depth = ETA / PE * P
  • ETA stands for Energy through armor.
  • PE stands for Projectile energy.
  • P stands for Penetration multiplier, which is based on a weapon's caliber.
  • The percentage of energy through armor divided by projectile energy determines the damage depth.
  • Note: if the damage depth exceeds the thickness of the target, the bullet penetrates the target.
    • This means remaining energy of the bullet will be calculated again if it hits a new target.

Object Thickness

  • When object is hit by projectile, depth of potential penetration is calculated and depending on thickness on moment of impact, Projectile Energy is modified.
  • Projectile Energy multiplier has default value of 1.0 on 12 cm thickness and can be decreased down to 0.33 multiplier at most when impact angle is low or more thicker object is struck. At maximum, the modifier can reach 100.0 value.
  • Modifier for thicker than 12 cm objects is 0.6
  • Modifier for less than 12 cm thick objects is 1.2
Projectile Energy Modifier(PEM) = (1+((PenDepth/12-1)*Multiple))
Modified Projectile Energy(MPE) = PE/PEM

Status effects


Some weapons and environmental effects, such as nebulae, can cause negative status effects to objects.
Possible known status effects that can be encountered in the galaxy are listed below.

Corrosive status

Corrosive status reduces structural durability and armor value of an object.
Corrosion requires time to take full effect, but to dissipate the effect, the object needs to be repaired.
Corrosive status may cause malfunctions in mechanical objects like door hinges or mounted weapons.

Corrosive mechanics


  1. When corrosive effect is added to any object via weapon or environmental effect, it is put into a stack.
  2. This stack counts all corrosive effects that the object has received, which are not yet fully effecting the object.
  3. Portion of this stack is then applied to the object over time at certain intervals.


  1. When corrosion is absorbed from stack to actual object over time, Corrosive status will become active.
    • It reduces object's armor value, structural durability, and fracture threshold.
  2. Corrosive Status also causes malfunctions in mechanical objects.

Corrosion flow
A simplified description of how corrosion status affects objects:

  1. Object is hit with ammunition with a corrosion payload.
  2. The corrosion is stored in a Stack.
    • The stack size will increase each time new corrosion payload affects the object.
  3. Object will slowly absorb corrosion from the Stack.
    • Once the first Stack is converted into corrosion, Corrosion status becomes active.
    • The corrosion effect can increase up to 100% corrosion.
    • The corrosion can be resisted or slowed down based on the Corrosion property of the affected material.
  4. Corrosion status is a way to measure corrosion effects of objects.
    • Armor value will decrease whenever corrosion is absorbed, eventually to 0.
    • Fracture threshold will increase whenever corrosion is absorbed, eventually to 99,99%.
    • Structural durability will decrease whenever corrosion is absorbed, eventually to 50% from the original value.
    • Corrosion status can cause temporary or permanent malfunctions in mechanical devices.
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